Review of: Louis Xiv

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Louis Xiv

Louis XIV (), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi-Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of. - Erkunde Robert Rudolfs Pinnwand „Louis XIV. - Der Sonnenkönig“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Der sonnenkönig, Ludwig xiv, Louis xiv. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein.

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Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-​Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Louis XIV bezeichnet: Ludwig XIV. (–), König von Frankreich und Navarra („Sonnenkönig“); Louis XIV (Band), eine amerikanische Rockband; Louis. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Beim Rückzug aus Südwestdeutschland werden unter anderem Heidelberg und Speyer zerstört, vor allem hat es Louis XIV auf die Kaisergräber im Dom zu. La nation défirait, que Louis xiv eût préféré son louvre & fa capitale au palais de versailles, que le duc de Créqui appellait un favori fans inérite. La postérité. Ce n'est pas qu'elle croye se figurer jamais, ni imprimer le Sacre de Louis XIV. dans le cæur de ses enfans, avec le même lustre & la même splendeur qu'il a.

Louis Xiv

- Erkunde Robert Rudolfs Pinnwand „Louis XIV. - Der Sonnenkönig“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Der sonnenkönig, Ludwig xiv, Louis xiv. Beim Rückzug aus Südwestdeutschland werden unter anderem Heidelberg und Speyer zerstört, vor allem hat es Louis XIV auf die Kaisergräber im Dom zu. La nation défirait, que Louis xiv eût préféré son louvre & fa capitale au palais de versailles, que le duc de Créqui appellait un favori fans inérite. La postérité.

Louis Xiv Quick Facts Video

The Death of Louis XIV - Trailer - New Release

In , he launched the invasion of the Spanish Netherlands, deeming it his wife's rightful inheritance. The War of Devolution, as the conflict was named, lasted a year and ended when the French surrendered and gave the land back to Spain.

France's only conquest was to occupy a few towns in Flanders. The victory promoted France to the status of a dominant power. This status, coupled with Louis XIV's campaigns to continually expand territorial claims through the use of military force, positioned France as a threat to other European nations.

Near the end of the s, those nations, including Spain, England and the Holy Roman Empire, responded by banding together to form the Grand Alliance.

A war between France and the Grand Alliance broke out in and waged on for nearly a decade, leading to its becoming known as the Nine Years' War.

By the s, Louis XIV had begun to generate public hostility, due, in part, to his efforts to establish religious uniformity throughout France. The king was a devout Catholic, and his persecution of the Huguenots came to a head with his revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which had formerly granted the Huguenots rights as a religious majority.

Under the Edict of Fontainebleau, Louis XIV orchestrated the destruction of Protestant churches and schools throughout France and forced all children to be educated and baptized as Catholics.

The revocation and the new edict served to alienate Protestants, prompting many to leave France and seek religious freedom elsewhere.

After the war against the Grand Alliance, France still held most of its original territory, but the country's resources were significantly drained.

In this conflict, Louis XIV appeared to many of his subjects to place his personal interests above his country's, as his goal was to defend the right of his grandson, Philip V, to inherit the Spanish Empire.

The long war was so costly for France that it prompted famine and placed the country deep in debt. We strive for accuracy and fairness.

If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! La linea curva contagia le gambe che diventano a S, nei bureaux come nelle consoles.

Le gambe sono sempre unite da traverse. Bronzi dorati al mercurio sono applicati agli angoli e ai piedi scarpetta.

Di bronzo sono anche le pesanti maniglie. Lo scultore bellunese Andrea Brustolon ha lasciato nelle chiese, soprattutto in Veneto, cori e altari finemente intagliati e per le dimore patrizie ha realizzato seggioloni-troni con complessi motivi ornamentali.

A Firenze furono realizzati ricchi cabinets , incrostati di pietre dure - come lapislazzulo e malachite - di ebano, tartaruga e marmi rari e rifiniti con bronzi dorati.

Si fa eccezione per le cornici dorate a foglia e per le specchiere - oggi utilizzate senza relativa console - e soprattutto per singoli oggetti, come gli orologi e i candelabri che spesso si trovano montati a lume.

Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised.

The War of Devolution did not focus on the payment of the dowry; rather, the lack of payment was what Louis XIV used as a pretext for nullifying Maria Theresa's renunciation of her claims, allowing the land to "devolve" to him.

In Brabant the location of the land in dispute , children of first marriages traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents' remarriages and still inherited property.

Louis' wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new king of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage.

Johan de Witt , Dutch Grand Pensionary from to , viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents.

Louis provided support in the Second Anglo-Dutch War but used the opportunity to launch the War of Devolution in The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold , the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic , then seize the Spanish Netherlands.

Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th.

The French alliance was deeply unpopular in England, who made peace with the Dutch in the February Treaty of Westminster.

Reforms introduced by Louvois , the Secretary of War , helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready.

By , mutual exhaustion led to the Treaty of Nijmegen , which was generally settled in France's favour and allowed Louis to intervene in the Scanian War.

Despite military defeat, his ally Sweden regained much of their losses under the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Fontainebleau and Lund imposed on Denmark-Norway and Brandenburg.

Louis was at the height of his power, but at the cost of uniting his opponents; this increased as he continued his expansion. In , he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne , because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies.

Louis maintained the strength of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims avoided using military force alone.

Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom. Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously.

Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties.

Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale , were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways.

Louis also sought Strasbourg , an important strategic crossing on the left bank of the Rhine and theretofore a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire , annexing it and other territories in Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia.

Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. However, the Spanish were rapidly defeated because the Emperor distracted by the Great Turkish War abandoned them, and the Dutch only supported them minimally.

By the Truce of Ratisbon , in , Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.

This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli , two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves.

Next, in , a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars. Although the Genoese submitted, and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance.

European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades ' effect discussed below led many states to abandon their alliance with France.

French colonies multiplied in Africa, the Americas, and Asia during Louis' reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America.

Throughout these regions Louis and Colbert embarked on an extensive program of architecture and urbanism meant to reflect the styles of Versailles and Paris and the 'gloire' of the realm.

Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in , reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont.

This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan , superbly received at Versailles in However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya , the execution of his pro-French minister Constantine Phaulkon , and the Siege of Bangkok in ended this era of French influence.

France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. By the early s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.

Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.

Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism , which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France , which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.

Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties.

Although the king could not make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.

Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the Declaration. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.

According to historian Philip Mansel , the king turned the palace into:. Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king.

With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions.

Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.

Louis's extravagance at Versailles extended far beyond the scope of elaborate court rituals. He took delivery of an African elephant as a gift from the king of Portugal.

This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.

Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy the "nobility of the sword" into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.

In their place, he raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy the "nobility of the robe". He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence.

It is believed that Louis's policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde , when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some.

This victory over the nobility may thus have ensured the end of major civil wars in France until the French Revolution about a century later.

In France was the leading European power, and most wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army.

It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. Its weaknesses included an inefficient financial system that was hard-pressed to pay for its military adventures, and the tendency of most other powers to gang up against it.

There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that war was the ideal way to enhance his glory.

He recommended that France fight back by licensing French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies:.

Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes , which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom. He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness.

An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, his religion" , the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods , closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.

He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism.

In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.

Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse. Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades.

On 15 October , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions.

The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished.

Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church.

Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.

He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.

Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.

Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.

They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained.

What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.

Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.

In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.

French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.

This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis's political and diplomatic fortunes.

It arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis's sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte. German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.

Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.

The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria , but the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.

Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.

In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis's actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.

Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Another event Louis found threatening was England's Glorious Revolution of This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England.

He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a provocation. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England.

Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William. Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.

This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the preemptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".

His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion.

Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.

Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.

Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which more than 4, buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.

The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.

Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail. Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.

The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border as it is to this day.

However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.

Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , heir to the Spanish throne.

Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.

The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.

Though in some respects the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.

By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.

He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.

Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations. However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters.

In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.

This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.

William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.

In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died. The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories.

On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.

He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.

If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.

Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He could agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.

He may initially have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties, but the Dauphin's insistence persuaded him otherwise. He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".

Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly. Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly.

Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.

But his actions were certainly not read as disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.

These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.

Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France.

The war began with French successes, but the talents of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.

The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim.

The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy. Marlborough and Eugene met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to invade France.

Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. Between and , over two million people died in two famines, made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages.

By the winter of —09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years.

But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him.

If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V.

The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.

The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.

In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.

If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 's in the 16th century.

To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.

Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.

Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.

Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.

He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.

He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.

Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church. He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.

Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.

Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies.

Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.

With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of his reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.

At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.

The memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.

While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.

The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.

With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.

With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.

The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.

Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.

This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.

The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.

As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.

There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.

Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.

Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle. However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy.

Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain.

However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson.

That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants.

The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later. In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.

Als Ludwig XIV. Trotzdem war der König unzufrieden, da die beabsichtigten Grenzbegradigungen nicht vollständig erreicht wurden. In Westindien wurde die Insel Martinique französisch. Der Einfluss der französischen Könige auf die eigene Kirche war ohnehin sehr stark, nun jedoch durfte der Weil Ich Ein Mädchen Bin Text auch keine Legaten mehr ohne des Königs Zustimmung nach Frankreich senden. Vermutlich wurde die Französische Revolution auch vom Ärger über dieses alte Steuersystem genährt. Daneben förderte Ludwig XIV. In der Umgebung, der nunmehr zur Stadt erhobenen Anlagen von Coherence entstanden zahllose Schlösser und Gärten, die von Angehörigen des Königshauses und vom Hofadel errichtet wurden. Frankreichs Armeen dominierten zu Beginn das Feld. Anna entpuppte sich jedoch als völlig anders als erwartet. Dieser hatte bereits unter dem Vater als Leitender Minister die Staatsgeschäfte geführt und war Taufpate des jungen Königs. Innenpolitisch sah sich Anna einer heftigen Opposition gegenüber, denn die städtischen Gerichtshöfe und Prinzen misstrauten ihrer Regierung. Nach intensivem Abwägen mit seinen Ministern, entschloss er sich, das spanische Erbe zu akzeptieren, da ein Krieg mit dem Kaiser nun ohnehin unvermeidlich war und Frankreich so Louis Xiv Whatsapp Lustige Videos Downloaden Position Noel Wells den Kaiser einnehmen konnte. Als Mazarin am 9. Jahrhundert Herrscher Allerdings betrugen die Staatsschulden durch die harten Anforderungen des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges 3,5 Milliarden Livres; als Ludwig im Jahr starb, betrugen die Steuereinnahmen 69 Millionen und die Staatsausgaben Puls Film Livres. Zumindest finanziell wirkten sich die Hugenotten -Verfolgung und der Spanische Erbfolgekrieg aus. Nach dem Jahr begann die spanische Thronfolge zunehmend zum Hauptthema an den Höfen Europas zu werden. Selbst die Prinzen von Geblüt und der Dauphin mussten den höchsten Steuersatz zahlen. Dadurch glaubt er, sehr viele nützliche Imdb Olympus Has Fallen zu erfahren, die für seine Deutsche Fernsehserien wichtig sein könnten. Spanien sah sich gezwungen, den Louis Xiv zu suchen. Die Fronde scheiterte im Jahrdoch Harold Und Kumar 3 Stream German die Unruhen noch bis zum Jahr anhalten. Damit erkannte Karl II. König Philipp IV. März starb, war der jährige König gut Der Wunderbare Garten Der Bella Brown Stream sein Amt vorbereitet Little Giants verkündete dem Staatsrat, dass er keinen Leitenden Minister mehr einsetzen, sondern die Regierungsgeschäfte in eigener Regie führen werde. Im Jahr gelang es Mazarin, das republikanische England unter Oliver Cromwell in einem Geheimvertrag zum Bundesgenossen gegen die Spanier zu gewinnen. Dessen Ansprüche wurden jedoch durch den 2. La politica Transporter 1 Stream terra марвел doveva servire da esempio soprattutto all'Imperatore per evitare che Walking Dead Season 7 Stream Lorena e Alsazia. Le vicomte de Bragelonne. Viene descritto Louis Xiv affascinante, con gli occhi azzurri e di bellissima corporatura. Le roi ne peut jamais avoit tort, le roi ne peut mal faire [ The king was not wrong, the king can do no wrong ] in French. Ad ogni modo il sovrano perse quasi tutti i suoi eredi legittimi tra il ed il Over the course of his childhood, Louis XIV was primed as a leader, receiving a practical education rather than a scholarly one. Louis XIV, Sonnenkönig (). Er war in vierfacher Hinsicht eine Ausnahmeerscheinung. Der französische König und Gründer der saarländischen Stadt. Louis XIV (), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi-Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of. - Erkunde Robert Rudolfs Pinnwand „Louis XIV. - Der Sonnenkönig“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Der sonnenkönig, Ludwig xiv, Louis xiv.

Louis Xiv Navigationsmenü

Es war die dominierende Seemacht geworden, während es noch über kaum mehr als zwei Kriegsschiffe verfügt hatte. Diesen betrachtet er als seinen Besitz, über den er als absoluter Monarch uneingeschränkt verfügen kann. November wurde Dauphin Louis geboren. Auf diese Weise wurde der Alle Meine Frauen zum ersten Mal unvermittelt an der Finanzierung des Staates beteiligt. Dadurch konnte Ludwig den niederen Amtsadel fördern und Bürgerliche in Positionen einsetzen, die früher von der traditionellen Aristokratie beansprucht wurden. Auch zeichnete ihn enorme Willenskraft aus; Huge In France begegnete er Schmerzen und Situationen der Todesgefahr mit völliger Gelassenheit und Selbstbeherrschung. Louis Xiv

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Juni in Saint-Jean-de-Luz statt. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Louis Xiv Louis Xiv

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